BIOLOGICAL ENVIRONMENT

BIOLOGICAL ENVIRONMENT

3.1 INTRODUCTION

The present study is to characterise the environmental components like flora and fauna, to assess the biological diversity of the region.  Flora and fauna can be used for biological surveillance in assessing the environmental status (Figure 3.1).  The ecological interpretation of Nakkavagu basin is based on reconnaissance survey and from secondary sources of information.

Water is the basic and essential resource for the survival of flora and fauna.  The flora being the primary producer influences the fauna of the region.  The characteristic flora existing in a region depends up on the existing conditions such as intensity of sunlight, type of soil, quality of air, including the quality and quantity of water available, etc.  Several scientists in the past have studied the ecological aspects and pollution (Hynes (1960), Munnawar (1970), Bharati (1973), Senayya (1979), Cynthia (1980), Khanum (1980), Ambasht (1981), Clapham (1981), Khan (1985), Kim (1990), Chapman (1992), Beeby (1993)). In Nakkavagu basin the Industrialisation led to pollution of surface and groundwater resources, soil, air, etc., this will have impact on the biodiversity of the region.

Nakkavagu basin area supports diverse fauna because of the presence of water bodies in and around the basin.  The Manjira wildlife sanctuary located to the north-west of Nakkavagu basin about 30kms from Patancheru lies in between the Manjira and Singoor barrages.  This Sanctuary is the abode for a number of resident and migratory birds in addition to being the home for the Marsh crocodile.  On the whole the rivers, streams, reservoirs, tanks, ponds, and lakes present in this part of Medak District, supporting diverse aquatic flora and fauna, is the sensitive region to be protected.

3.2 FLORA

The flora in this region is tropical deciduous, as the monsoons are very much short lived in this District.  The shedding of leaves starts around January and the trees remain leafless till June.  The flora that is found in Nakkavagu basin is presented in (Table 3.1).

Table 3.1    Indigenous plant species of Nakkavagu basin.
Botanical Name    Common Name    Local Name    Uses
1.        Acacia arabica    Babul    Tumma    Timber, fodder, fuel-wood, fencing,
2.        Acacia auriculoformis        Nakka Thoka    Timber, fuel-wood
3.        Acacia concinna        Shikakai    Fencing, shampoo
4.        Acacia ferrugen        Tella Thumma    Timber, fuel-wood, fodder
5.        Acacia instia        Seema Korinda    Fencing,
6.        Acacia mangium        Budidaaku Chettu    Fuel-wood
7.        Acassia catechu        Tella Thumma    Timber, fuel-wood, fodder
8.        Achras zapota    Sapota    Sapota    Fruit
9.        Adathoda vasica        Addasaram    Fencing, medicinal, biopesticide
10.        Adenanthera pavonina        Erra Goli    Timber, fuel-wood, fodder
11.        Aegle marmelos    Bale    Maredu    Fruit, dye, cultural
12.        Agave angustifolia    Agave    Sagaramatta    Fencing, fiber
13.        Alebizzia lebback        Dirishanam    Fodder, timber, fuel-wood
14.        Amaranthus spinosus    Amaranthus    Totakura    Greens
15.        Annona squamosa    Custard Apple    Seetahapal    Fruit, medicinal, biopesticide.
16.        Artocarpus heterophyllus    Jack Fruit    Panasa    Fruit, timber
17.        Azadirachta indica    Neem    Vepa    Timber, fuel-wood, fodder, oil, medicinal, biopesticide
18.        Bambusa arundinacea    Bamboo    Veduru    Timber, basket making
19.        Bauhinia purpurea        Kanchanam    Timber, fodder, fuel-wood
20.        Bauhinia racemosa        Are    Fuel-wood, timber, fodder
21.        Bixa orellana        Annota    Dye
22.        Buchannia lanzan    Chiranj    Morri    Fruit, fodder, fuel-wood
23.        Butea monosperma    Flame of Forest    Modugu    Dye, fuel-wood, leaf plate, green manure, medicinal
Botanical Name    Common Name    Local Name    Uses
24.        Caesalpinia crista        Gachhakaya    Fencing, medicinal
25.        Calotropis gigantia        Jilledu    Medicinal, fodder, green manure, biopesticide
26.        Canavalia enciformis    Swork Bean    Chammakaya    Vegetable, green cover, fodder
27.        Carica papaya        Papaya    Fruit, medicinal
28.        Cassia auriculata        Nela Tangedu    Fuel-wood, medicinal, manure
29.        Cassia fistula        Rela    Fuel-wood, fodder, timber
30.        Cassia siamea        Adavi Tangedu    Green Manure, medicinal, fuel-wood, timber
31.        Cassia spectabilis        Pachha Tangedu    Fuel-wood, green manure, medicinal, timber
32.        Centrocema pubescens        Katte teega    Fodder, green cover
33.        Cibea pentandra        Adavi Patthi    Cotton, medicinal, fodder
34.        Citrus auruntium    Citrus    Nimma    Fruit, medicinal, biopesticide.
35.        Clerodendron phlomidis        Takkali    Medicinal
36.        Clitoria ternatea    Blue Bell    Shanku pushpam    Fodder, green cover
37.        Coleus aromaticus        Vaamaku    Medicinal, biopesticide,
38.        Coriandrum sativum    Coriandar    Daniyalu    Greens, biopesticide
39.        Crotalaria juncea    Sun Hemp    Janumu    Fiber, green manure, medicine
40.        Cucurbita moschata    Pumpkin    Gummadi    Vegetables
41.        Diospyros chloroxylon        Illinta    Fencing, fodder, timber, fuel-wood, fruit
42.        Dodonaea viscosa        Pulaili    Fuel-wood, fencing, fodder
43.        Dolichos biflorus    Horsegram    Uluvalu    Fodder, green manure, Medicinal
44.        Dolichos lab-lab    Bean    Kuranupa    Vegetables, green cover
45.        Emblica officinalis    Gooseberry    Usiri    Fruit, medicinal
46.        Erithrina indica        Tellarjam    Fodder, fuel-wood
47.        Euphorbia antiquorum        Pudaka Jemadi    Fencing, medicinal
48.        Feronia elephantum    Wood apple    Veluga    Fruit, fuel-wood, fodder.
49.        Ficus bengalensis    Bhad    Marri    Fuel-wood, medicinal
50.        Ficus glomerata    Fig    Medi    Fodder, fuel-wood, timber
51.        Ficus religiosa
Peepul    Ragi    Fruit, fuel-wood, cultural
Botanical Name    Common Name    Local Name    Uses
52.        Gardinia gummifera        Chitimiti    Fruit, fencing, fodder, fuel-wood
53.        Gossypium herbaceum        Nalla Patti    Cotton, Medicinal
54.        Grewia tilliaefolia        Palsa    Fruit
55.        Guizoltia abyasinica    Niger    Gaddinuvulu    Oil, Green manure, medicinal, fodder
56.        Gymnosporia montana        Danta    Fencing, fuel-wood
57.        Hardwickia binnata        Yepi    Timber, fuel-wood, fodder,
58.        Hibiscus cannabinus        Punti    Fiber, fodder
59.        Ipomoea fistulosa         Tuti poraka    Fencing, weaving
60.        Jeatropha curacas        Adavi amudam    Oil, medicinal, biopesticide
61.        Lagenaria leucantha    Bottle Gourd    Sorakaya    Vegetable
62.        lagerstroemia parviflora         Chennagi    Food, medicinal, fodder
63.        Lantana camera    Lantana    Kakipandu    Fencing, fruit, thatch
64.        Luffa acutangula    Ridge Gourd    Beera    Vegetable
65.        Madhuka indica    Mohua    Ippa    Fuel-wood, fodder, medicinal, timber, food
66.        Mangifera indica    Mango    Mamidi    Fruit, timber, fuel-wood.
67.        Melia azadirachta    Persian Lilac    Turka Vepa    Timber fodder
68.        Momordica charantia    Bitter Gourd    Kaakara    Vegetable, medicinal
69.        Morinda tomentosa        Maddi    Timber, fodder, medicinal, fuel-wood
70.        Morus alba    Mulberry    Bontha Pandlu    Fruit, fodder, fuel-wood
71.        Mucuna cochinchinensis    Velvet bean    Doolkaya    Fodder, green cover
72.        Murraya koenigi    Curry leaf    Karivepaku    Medicinal, biopesticide
73.        Occimum basilicum    Sanctum    Tulisi    Medicinal, biopesticide, cultural
74.        Ougeinia oojeinensis        Tella Motuku    Firewood, timber
75.        Parkiasonia aculeata        Cheema tumma    Fencing, fuel-wood
76.        Passiflora edulis    Passion fruit    Pacha Pundu    Fruit, medicinal,
77.        Peltophoram pterocarpum        Pachha Pulu    Fuel-wood, timber
78.        Phaseolus trilobus        Pilli Pesara    Fodder, green manure, medicinal
79.        Phoenix sylvestris    Palm    Eetha    Fruit, basket making, fencing
80.        Pithecellobium dulce    Inga dulce    Seema Chinta    Fruit, timber, fodder,
81.        Plantago ovata    Mehandi    Gorinta    Fencing, dye
Botanical Name    Common Name    Local Name    Uses
82.        Pongamia pinnata    Kharanj    Kanuga    Green manure, medicinal, fuel-wood, oil, timber.
83.        Premna integrifolia        Takkali    Fodder, fencing, medicinal, timber, biopesticide
84.        Prosopis cineraria
Jambi chettu    Timber, fodder, cultural
85.        Psidium gujava    Guava    Jama    Fruit, furniture, medicinal
86.        Punica granatum    Pomegranate    Danimma    Fruit, medicinal
87.        Ricinus communis    Castor    Amudam    Oil, fodder, timber
88.        Rumex pesicarius        Chukkakura    Greens
89.        Samaea saman    Rain tree    Nidra ganneru    Fuel-wood, timber, fodder
90.        Sapindus mukorossi    Soapnut    Kunkudu    Shampoo, fuel-wood
91.        Sasbania aculeata        Tagarancha    Green manure, medicinal, green cover
92.        Sesbania grandiflora        Avisha    Food, fuel-wood, fodder,
93.        Sesbania species        Jiluga    Fodder, green manure, medicinal
94.        Sesbania species        Barputam    Fodder, green cover, green
95.        Spinacea oleracea    Palak    Palak    Greens
96.        Strychnos nux-vomica        Vishamushti    Timber, medicinal, fuel-wood
97.        Strychnos potatorum        Chilla    Fuel-wood, timber, fodder
98.        Stylosanthes guyanensis    Stylo        Fodder, green cover, green manure, medicinal
99.        Syzyphus cumini    Kala Jamun    Allaneradu    Timber, fodder, medicinal, fruit
100.        Tagetes erecta    Marigold    Banthi    Medicinal, biopesticide, flower
101.        Tamarindus indica    Tamarind    Chinta    Fruit, fuel-wood, fodder
102.        Tectona grandis    Teak    Teak    Timber, fodder,
103.        Tephrosia purpurea        Vempali    Green manure, dye
104.        Terminalia alata        Tanni    Timber, medicinal, fuel-wood.
105.        Terminalia catappa    Indian Almond    Baadam    Fruit
106.        Terminalia chebula    Hulda    Karka    Medicinal, fuel-wood
107.        Thevetia peruviana        Ganneru    Fencing,
108.        Trigonella foenum graecum    Fenugreek    Menti    Greens
109.        Vigna sinensis    Cow Pea    Alasandalu    Fodder, green cover
Botanical Name    Common Name    Local Name    Uses
110.        Vitex negundo        Vaili    Fencing, medicinal, fuel-wood, biopesticide
111.        Vitis setosa        Pulla bachhali    Greens,
112.        Ziziphus mauritiana    Ber    Reni    Fruit, fencing, timber, fodder, medicinal
113.        Ziziphus oenoplia    Sparrow Berry    Pariki    Fruit, fencing, fodder

These lists of species identified are indigenous to this region, many of them were once found abundantly in these parts of Nakkavagu basin.  These species listed are within the knowledge of older generation, their opinion is considered before finalising the list.  The diverse species identified meet the various requirements of local people and their domestic animals.  They also play an important role in the local ecosystem of the area.  Many tree species are reduced to few numbers and are limited to few scattered pockets.  As per the villagers, with the industrial development many species are not found any more or are seen in reduced numbers.  As these species are indigenous some of these listed species can be selected for afforestation and greening of the industrial areas for lessening the impacts of pollution.

Agro-forestry is still a practice in many villages; the fields are dotted with species like Mangifera indica, Tamarindus indica, Psidium guajava, Accacia arabica, etc.

Prosopis juliflora and Parthenium hysterophorus are the invading species, which are recent introductions. Prosopis juliflora growing luxuriantly in saline and polluted soils, all along the polluted streams of Nakkavagu basin (Photo 3.1 and 3.2). Parthenium hysterophorus is the major weed found everywhere.

3.3 FAUNA

Two of the major streams in Nakkavagu basin are named after a mammal and reptile, ‘Nakka’ means fox, ‘Pamula’ means ‘of snakes’ and ‘vagu’ means stream in Telugu.  ‘Nakkavagu’ – ‘fox-stream’ as per the villagers this stream was habitat for foxes in the past.  Similarly ‘Pamulavagu’ – ‘Stream of snakes’ was the natural habitat for snakes.  Whenever Pamulavagu was is in spate, large numbers of snakes were seen everywhere, even in the nearby villages.  The irrigation facilities led to growing crops like paddy, which attracts pests like rats; they in turn could have attracted snakes in large numbers, which helped in control of rats.

In the past the forests in the District were active with wild life.  The fox, wolf and Jackal are not seen presently in Nakkavagu basin, as aquatic habitat and forest areas are devastated by industrial pollution in Nakkavagu basin.  As per the local people’s observation the species like birds, reptiles, amphibians, pisces, insects and mammals etc.  are drastically reduced or migrated elsewhere.  The sparrows are seen less in numbers nowadays and their numbers have drastically reduced with increasing pollution.  There is complete absence of aquatic life in the Nakkavagu.  The tanks in the past might have attracted a large number and variety of migratory birds from higher latitudes in winter.  Birds are an integral part of the agricultural system.  Birds play an important role in the control of pests by helping the farmers from crop losses and also their excreta nourishes the fields with natural fertiliser.  The fauna seen in parts of Nakkavagu basin and in the adjacent Manjira wildlife sanctuary is presented in (Table 3.2 (a) & (b)).

Table 3.2 (a)
FISHES                 REPTILES
-    Catla
-    Rohu
-    Murrel
-    Eel
-    Paten
-    Kaarugu
-    Chidwa    -    Monitor Lizard
-    Fresh water turtles
-    Cobra
-    Marsh Crocodiles (exclusively found in Manjira Wildlife Sanctuary)

Table 3.2 (b)    Birds observed in parts of Nakkavagu basin and in the Manjira Wildlife Sanctuary.
Important Resident Birds

-    Grey Herons
-    Night Herons
-    Pond Herons
-    Purple Herons
-    Purple Moor Hen
-    Little Egrets
-    Cattle Egrets
-    Cormorants
-    Coots
-    King Fishers
-    Green bee eater
-    Red watlled lapwing
-    Shriek
-    Hoopoe
-    Doves
-    Sparrows    Important Migratory Birds

-    Painted Storks
-    Open billed Storks
-    Spoon bills
-    Comb ducks
-    Cotton teals
-    Whistling teals
-    Red crested pochards
-    Common pochards
-    Brahminy ducks
-    Grey Pelicans
-    Brown headed Gulls
-    Barheaded geese
-    Osprey
-    Marsh Harrier
-    Demoisselle Cranes
-     Swallows    Local Migratory Birds

-    Oriental Darters
-    Black Ibis
-    White Ibis
-    Glossy Ibis

3.4 FLORA AND FAUNA OF SURFACE WATER

In the polluted environment of streams and tanks, pisces, amphibians, reptiles, invertebrates, zooplankton and larva of many insects would be under severe stress, similarly there will be reduction in the wetland species along the banks – emergent macrophytes, floating macrophytes, submerged macrophytes and phytoplankton. May also lead to extinction and change in the species diversity and numbers.  With the loss of aquatic life due to pollution, the birds dependent on streams and tanks for food also get affected.

Streams and tanks of Nakkavagu basin support a wide range of natural communities.  Streams and tanks are important wildlife habitats and they can have economic value of fisheries too.  Tanks support rich and / or characteristic plant communities, invertebrates, amphibians and birds, and may even support rare species, the seasonal tanks are less important in this regard.  Habitat diversity studies are useful in measuring the quality of whole ecosystem, It is less time consuming and inexpensive.

The problems of freshwater habitats are, pollution, changes in flow regime, water depth, catchment area and reduction of habitat size.  The pollution of water is the major cause of loss of biodiversity in streams and lakes.  Because of industrial effluents entering into these water bodies, Nakkavagu does not support any significant life; many tanks have become dead, supporting only anaerobic life, exceptionally in some cases.  Some of the tanks whose catchment area is free from industrial activity are supporting vibrant life.  The relationship between diversity of species and the degree of water pollution is vice versa.

The biodiversity of some streams and tanks of Nakkavagu basin is given in (table 3.3).

Table 3.3    Biodiversity of streams and tanks.
S.No.    Name    1    2    3    4    5    6    7    8    9    10    11    12    13    14    15    16    17    18    19    20    21    22
MACROPHYTES
1    Ceratophyllum demersum    A    A    A    A    P    P    A    A    A    A    A    A    P    A    A    A    A    A    A    A    A    A
2    Ipomoea aquatica    A    A    P    A    P    P    A    A    P    A    A    A    P    A    P    A    P    A    A    P    A    A
3    Carex species    A    A    P    A    A    P    A    A    A    P    A    A    P    A    P    A    A    A    A    P    P    A
4    Cyperus species    A    P    P    A    A    P    A    P    A    P    P    P    P    A    P    A    P    A    A    P    P    A
5    Hydrialla veritcillate    A    A    P    A    P    P    A    P    A    P    A    A    P    A    A    A    A    A    A    P    A    A
6    Ottella alismoides    A    A    A    A    A    P    A    A    A    A    A    A    A    A    A    A    A    A    A    A    A    A
7    Vallisneria spiralis    A    A    A    A    P    P    A    A    A    P    A    A    P    A    A    A    A    A    A    A    A    A
8    Iris pseudocorus    A    A    P    A    A    P    A    A    A    A    A    A    A    A    A    A    A    A    A    A    A    A
9    Juncus heterophylla    A    A    A    A    A    P    A    A    A    A    A    A    A    A    A    A    A    A    A    A    A    A
10    Lemna minor    A    A    P    A    P    P    A    A    A    P    P    A    A    A    A    A    A    A    A    A    A    A
11    Spirodela polyrhyza    A    A    A    A    P    P    A    P    A    P    P    A    A    A    P    A    P    A    A    A    A    A
12    Nelumbo leutea    A    A    P    A    A    A    A    A    A    A    A    A    A    A    A    A    A    A    A    A    A    A
13    Agrostis species    A    A    P    A    A    A    A    A    A    A    A    A    A    A    A    A    A    A    A    A    A    A
14    Agrostis    A    A    A    A    A    A    A    A    A    A    A    A    P    A    P    A    P    A    A    P    P    A
15    Eichhornia crassipes    A    A    P    A    P    A    A    A    P    P    P    P    P    A    A    A    P    A    A    A    A    A
16    Potamogeton perfoliatus    A    A    A    A    A    P    A    A    A    P    A    A    P    A    A    A    A    A    A    P    A    A
17    Potamogeton penctinatus    A    A    P    A    A    P    A    A    A    A    A    A    A    A    A    A    A    A    A    P    A    A
18    Potamogeton crispus    A    A    A    A    A    P    A    A    A    P    A    A    A    A    A    A    A    A    A    P    A    A
19    Ipomoea species    A    A    P    A    P    A    A    P    P    P    P    P    P    A    P    A    A    A    A    P    P    A

S.No.    Name    1    2    3    4    5    6    7    8    9    10    11    12    13    14    15    16    17    18    19    20    21    22
20    Nymphaea species    A    A    P    A    A    A    A    A    A    A    A    A    A    A    A    A    P    A    A    A    A    A
21    Scirpus species    A    A    P    A    A    P    A    A    A    A    A    A    P    A    A    A    A    A    A    P    P    A
Algae
22    Chara vulgaris    A    A    P    A    A    P    A    A    A    A    A    A    P    A    A    A    A    A    A    P    A    A
23    Nitella gracillis    A    A    A    A    A    P    A    A    A    A    A    A    A    A    A    A    A    A    A    P    A    A
24    Cladophora glomerati    A    A    P    A    A    P    A    P    P    P    P    A    P    A    P    A    P    A    A    P    P    A
25    Spirogyra communia    A    A    P    A    P    P    A    P    P    P    P    A    P    A    P    A    P    A    A    P    P    A
26    Spyrogyra varians    A    A    P    A    P    P    A    P    A    P    A    P    P    A    P    A    A    A    A    P    A    A
27    Oscillatoria formosa    A    A    P    A    P    P    A    P    P    P    A    A    P    A    P    A    P    A    A    P    P    A
28    Oscillatoria limosa    A    A    P    A    A    A    A    P    P    P    A    P    P    A    P    A    P    A    A    A    P    A
29    Oscillatoria putrida    A    A    P    A    A    A    A    P    P    P    P    P    P    A    P    A    P    A    A    A    P    A
30    Hydrodictyon reticulata    A    A    P    A    A    P    A    A    A    P    A    P    A    A    A    A    A    A    A    P    A    A
31    Zygema species    A    A    P    A    A    P    A    A    A    P    A    A    P    A    A    A    A    A    A    P    A    A
FISH AND OTHER ANIMALS
32    Heteropterans    A    P    P    P    P    P    A    P    P    P    P    P    P    A    P    A    P    A    A    P    P    A
33    Coleopterans    A    A    P    A    P    P    A    P    P    P    P    A    P    A    A    A    P    A    A    P    P    A
34    Cladocerans    A    P    P    A    P    P    A    A    P    P    P    A    P    A    P    A    P    A    A    P    P    A
35    Gastropods    A    A    A    A    A    P    A    A    A    P    A    A    P    A    A    A    A    A    A    P    A    A
36    Bivalves    A    A    A    A    A    P    A    A    A    P    A    A    P    A    A    A    A    A    A    P    A    A
37    Cyprinus carpeo    A    A    P    A    A    P    A    A    A    A    A    A    P    A    A    A    A    A    A    P    A    A
38    Labeo rohita    A    A    A    A    P    P    A    A    A    P    A    A    P    A    A    A    A    A    A    P    A    A
39    Labeo bata    A    A    A    A    A    P    A    A    A    A    A    A    A    A    A    A    A    A    A    P    A    A
40    Clarias species    A    A    A    A    A    P    A    A    A    A    A    A    A    A    A    A    A    A    A    P    A    A
41    Channa punctatus    A    A    A    A    A    A    A    A    A    A    A    A    A    A    A    A    A    A    A    P    A    A
Biological Score(Species Present)    0    3    26    1    15    32    0    12    11    24    11    8    26    0    14    0    14    0    0    28    13    0
Biological Score (%)    0    7    63    2.5    37    78    0    29    27    59    27    20    63    0    34    0    34    0    0    68    32    0
(Source: CPCB report (1998))
A – Absent, P – Present
Index
Lakes        River or stream
1    Khazipally cheru    14    Bollaram near Sultanpur
2    Gandigudem cheru    15    Isukavagu U/s CETP
3    Nagula cheru    16    Isukavagu D/s outfall near Pocharam
4    Krishnareddipet cheru    17    Isukavagu at bridge
5    Mukta kunta    18    Nakkavagu at Bachuguda after confluence with Pamulavagu
6    Aminpur cheru    19    Nakkavagu at Sultanpur bridge
7    Bollaram cheru    20    Manjira U/s Nakkavagu confluence
8    Khazipalli village cheru    21    Manjira D/s Nakkavagu confluence
9    Saka cheru    22    Nakkavagu before Manjira confluence
10    Mutangi cheru
11    Isnapur cheru
12    Chitkul cheru
13    Lakdaram cheru

(Note: The biological score in percentage is directly related to the degree of toxicity of the surface waters.  Zero score percentage indicates highly toxic and almost devoid of any life.)

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